OBJECTIVE: The review systematically reviews the literature on co-occurring gender dysphoria/gender variance and autism spectrum disorder among children and adolescents.
METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted for the years 1946 to December 2018.
RESULTS: 144 publications could be identified in the literature search. Out of these, 22 publications met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review. 4.7 to 13.3 % of the children and adolescents with primarily diagnosed gender dysphoria/variance examined in the studies also had an autism diagnosis. In samples of children and adolescents with primarily diagnosed autism gender variance was overrepresented with a prevalence of 4 to 6.5 %.
CONCLUSION: The results of the systematic review point towards an overrepresentation of co-occurring gender dysphoria/variance and autism spectrum disorder. Methodological and clinical implications are discussed.