Leukemia-initiating cells reside within the bone marrow in specialized niches where they undergo complex interactions with their surrounding stromal cells. We have identified the actin-binding protein Plastin-3 (PLS3) as potential player within the leukemic bone marrow niche and investigated its functional role in acute myeloid leukemia. High expression of PLS3 was associated with a poor overall and event-free survival for AML patients. These findings were supported by functional in vitro and in vivo experiments. AML cells with a PLS3 knockdown showed significantly reduced colony numbers in vitro while the PLS3 overexpression variants resulted in significantly enhanced colony numbers compared to their respective controls. Furthermore, the survival of NSG mice transplanted with the PLS3 knockdown cells showed a significantly prolonged survival in comparison to mice transplanted with the control AML cells. Further studies should focus on the underlying leukemia-promoting mechanisms and investigate PLS3 as therapeutic target.