Temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA) is a chronic degenerative disease that is often characterized by progressive impairment of the temporomandibular functional unit. The aim of this randomized controlled animal trial was a comparative analysis regarding the chondroregenerative potency of intra-articular stem/stromal cell therapy. Four weeks after combined mechanical and biochemical osteoarthritis induction in 28 rabbits, therapy was initiated by a single intra-articular injection, randomized into the following groups: Group 1: AB Serum (ABS); Group 2: Hyaluronic acid (HA); Group 3: Mesenchymal stromal cells (STx.); Group 4: Mesenchymal stromal cells in hyaluronic acid (HA + STx.). After another 4 weeks, the animals were euthanized, followed by histological examination of the removed joints. The histological analysis showed a significant increase in cartilage thickness in the stromal cell treated groups (HA + STx. vs. ABS, p = 0.028; HA + ST.x vs. HA, p = 0.042; STx. vs. ABS, p = 0.036). Scanning electron microscopy detected a similar heterogeneity of mineralization and tissue porosity in the subchondral zone in all groups. The single intra-articular injection of a stem cell containing, GMP-compliant advanced therapy medicinal product for the treatment of iatrogen induced osteoarthritis of the temporomandibular joint shows a chondroregenerative effect.