The role of subcellular survivin compartmentalization in the biology and prognosis of prostate cancer is unclear. We therefore investigated subcellular localization of survivin in more than 3000 prostate cancer patients by quantitative immunohistochemistry and performed transcriptomics of 250 prostate cancer patients and healthy donors using publicly available datasets. Survivin (BIRC5) gene expression was increased in primary prostate cancers and metastases, but did not differ in recurrent vs non-recurrent prostate cancers. Survivin immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining was limited exclusively to the nucleus in 900 prostate cancers (40.0%), and accompanied by various levels of cytoplasmic positivity in 1338 tumors (59.4%). 0.5% of prostate cancers did not express survivin. Nuclear and cytoplasmic survivin staining intensities were strongly associated with each other, pT category, and higher Gleason scores. Cytoplasmic but not nuclear survivin staining correlated with high tumor cell proliferation in prostate cancers. Strong cytoplasmic survivin staining, but not nuclear staining predicted an unfavorable outcome in univariate analyses. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that survivin is not an independent prognostic marker. In conclusion, we provide evidence that survivin expression is increased in prostate cancers, especially in metastatic disease, resulting in higher aggressiveness and tumor progression. In addition, subcellular compartmentalization is an important aspect of survivin cancer biology, as only cytoplasmic, but not nuclear survivin accumulation is linked to biological aggressiveness and prognosis of prostate cancers.