INTRODUCTION: Multiple myeloma is still incurable in most cases. Polyclonal anti T lymphocyte globulins (ATG) have been reported to kill human myeloma cells in vitro and in mouse models.
METHODS: Anti-human-myeloma globulins (AMG) were produced by immunizing rabbits with human myeloma cell lines RPMI-8226 (AMG-8226) or KMS-12-BM (AMG-12-BM). Cytotoxicity of the polyclonal antibodies was analyzed in vitro and in a xenograft NOD-SCID mouse model.
RESULTS: Both AMG had stronger cytotoxicity against myeloma cells compared to ATG. In primary T cells, AMG-8226 showed greater complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) than ATG, whereas complement-independent cytotoxicity did not differ. Effects on non-hematopoietic cell lines were also similar. Competitive blocking assays revealed fourfold more antibodies against CD38 in AMG-8226 compared to ATG. Low concentrations of AMG-8226 and ATG increased ADCC. At higher concentrations, ATG inhibited ADCC more potently than AMG-8226. Combinations of ATG and AMG-8226 with melphalan or bortezomib showed additive to synergistic cytotoxicity on myeloma cells. The cytotoxic effects of AMG and ATG were confirmed in the xenograft NOD-SCID mouse model.
CONCLUSION: Our data show more potent antimyeloma effects of AMG compared to ATG. These results lay the ground for the development of polyclonal antibodies for the treatment of multiple myeloma.