The impact of renal impairment and hemodialysis on ethyl glucuronide concentrations in hair (hEtG) is not well known. Here, hEtG levels were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in patients presenting to the transplant outpatient clinic and compared with the self-reported alcohol consumption in an anonymous validated questionnaire. Estimated daily alcohol intake (EDI) was calculated. A total of 94 patients with varying renal function (Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) > 60 mL/min: group 1 (n = 47); GFR 30-60 ml/min: group 2 (n = 29); GFR < 30 mL/min: group 3 (n = 18)) were included in the study. Fifteen of 18 (83.3%) patients in group 3 were on dialysis. Altogether, hEtG tested positive (> 5 pg/mg) in 25.5% (n = 24) of patients, while 36.2% (n = 34) and 14.9% (n = 14) of patients reported any or regular (> 10 g/d) alcohol consumption, respectively. The median hEtG concentration of positive samples was much higher in patients in group 3 with advanced renal dysfunction or on dialysis than in patients in group 1 or 2 (group 1, 2, 3 dialysis patients: 74, 52, 145 and 155 pg/mg, respectively), although they consumed on average much less alcohol per day (median EDI group 1, 2, 3, dialysis patients: 16, 17, 3 and 3 g/d, respectively). Also, there was a significant correlation between the hEtG concentration and EDI for patients in group 1 (ρ = 0.84; p = 0.01), but not for patients in group 2 (ρ = -0.35, p = 0.39) or 3 (ρ = 0.02, p = 0.96). Furthermore, the ability of hEtG to correctly identify abstainers as such was lower for patients with advanced renal dysfunction than for the remaining patients (specificity for group 1, 2, 3: 92%, 87%, 82%, respectively). So, monitoring hEtG concentration was less reliable in patients with advanced renal dysfunction or on hemodialysis and by far overestimated the amount of alcohol consumed.