We screened 136 patients with myelofibrosis and a median age of 58 years who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) for molecular residual disease for JAKV617F (n=101), thrombopoietin receptor gene (MPL) (n=4) or calreticulin (CALR) (n=31) mutation in peripheral blood on day +100 and +180 after AHSCT. After a median follow-up of 78 months, the 5-year estimated overall survival was 60% (95% confidence interval (CI): 50-70%) and the cumulative incidence of relapse at 5 years was 26% (95% CI: 18-34%) for the entire study population. The percentage of molecular clearance on day 100 was higher in CALR-mutated patients (92%) in comparison with MPL- (75%) and JAKV617F-mutated patients (67%). Patients with detectable mutation at day +100 or at day +180 had a significant higher risk of clinical relapse at 5 years than molecular-negative patients (62% vs 10%, P<0.001) and 70% vs 10%, P<0.001, respectively) irrespectively of the underlying mutation. In a multivariate analysis, high-risk diseases status (hazard ratio (HR) 2.5; 95% CI: 1.18-5.25, P=0.016) and detectable MRD at day 180 (HR 8.36, 95% CI: 2.76-25.30, P<0.001) were significant factors for a higher risk of relapse.Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 17 July 2017; doi:10.1038/bmt.2017.157.