Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant neurocutaneous disorder, characterized by cafe-au-lait macules, benign neurofibromas as well as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours, freckling in the axillary or inguinal regions, optic glioma and Lisch nodules (iris hamartomas) and further manifestations like bone deformities etc. Additionally, NF1 patients are at increased risk of early-onset cerebrovascular diseases, the pathogenesis of which has not been clarified yet. Here we report the first case of two siblings with NF1 who suffered an acute ischemic stroke. Professionals treating NF1 patients should be aware of the elevated risk of stroke in this population. Large prospective studies are needed to establish optimal guidelines for diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of cerebrovascular disease in patients suffering from NF1, as well as to achieve a consensus on routine vascular screening in NF1.