Research indicates that approximately one third of offenders admitted to social-therapeutic correctional facilities in Germany fail to complete treatment and that treatment dropout is linked to higher recidivism in both sexual and violent offenders. The purpose of this study was to examine determinants of treatment dropout in a social-therapeutic correctional facility in Germany. The sample consisted of 205 incarcerated adult male offenders (49.8% sexual, 38.1% non-sexual violent) admitted to correctional treatment. Completers and dropouts were compared on variables pertaining to demographics, offense type, substance abuse, psychopathy, risk, and protective factors. Univariate analyses showed that treatment dropouts demonstrated significantly higher scores on measures of risk and psychopathy and lower scores on protective factors. Logistic regression analyses identified unemployment, non-sexual violent index offense, higher risk scores (HCR-20), and Facet 1 (interpersonal deficits) of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) as significant predictors of treatment dropout. Surprisingly, substance abuse disorder was a negative predictor of dropout. With the exception of substance abuse, the results support the notion that treatment dropouts represent a group of high-risk offenders with particular treatment needs. Practical implications and suggestions for further research are discussed.