Burden of Parents of Pediatric Cancer Patients in Pediatric-oncological Rehabilitation All family members experience high burden in case of paediatric cancer. Family-oriented rehabilitation (FOR) aims to improve the physical and mental situation of the families. We investigated anxiety and depression (HADS) and cancer-related burden of parents (n = 69) before and after FOR and analysed its association with quality of life of the ill children. At beginning of FOR 70 % of the parents showed moderate to high anxiety scores and 47 % moderate to high depression scores. They reported cancer-related burden such as exhaustion, cancer-related fears and a burden of family's daily life due to the cancer disease. At the end of FOR 40 % of the parents showed moderate to high anxiety scores and 30 % moderate to high depression. Cancer-related burden measured with self-developed items also decreased after FOR. Compared to age- and gender-adapted norm values, mothers show significantly higher anxiety and depression scores, whereas fathers show no differences in depression scores compared to norm values at the end of FOR. Quality of life of ill children and anxiety and depression scores in the parents are significantly associated with each other. Results of the study show that parents stabilise after FOR and improve their mental situation. However, the results also underline the need for long-term psychosocial support for all family members.