Associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) is a novel approach in liver surgery that allows for extensive resection of liver parenchyma by inducing a rapid hypertrophy of the future remnant liver. However, recent reports indicate that not all patients eligible for ALPPS will benefit from this procedure. Therefore, careful patient selection will be necessary to fully exploit possible benefits of ALPPS. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the technical evolution of ALPPS with a special emphasis on safety and oncologic efficacy. Furthermore, we review the contemporary literature regarding indication and benefits, but also limitations of ALPPS.